Base 2 Nucleosynthesis

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Base 2 nucleosynthesis, sometimes written as base2 nucleosynthesis or stylized as B2N, is a theory proposed by German mathematician and nuclear physics professor Ludolf B. Hawke, which posits that any chemical element currently present on the non-extended periodic table (hereinafter periodic table) can be artificially synthesized, given a stock of seven specific stable elements, and the means to fuse them into larger elements at the atomic level.

Primary Elements

The backbone of base 2 nucleosynthesis is the specific atomic number of each of the seven primary elements stored before combination within the system, as they are a series of base-10 numbers converted from base-2, or binary positioning. The primary elements are:

  1. Hydrogen (1H)
  2. Helium (2He)
  3. Beryllium (4Be)
  4. Oxygen (8O)
  5. Sulfur (16S)
  6. Germanium (32Ge)
  7. Gadolinium (64Gd)

Constituent Elements

The concept behind artificially synthesizing any element on the periodic table using only seven stable elements is rooted in the conversion of base-10 numbers to base-2 notation.[1] That is, the target element's atomic number, converted from base-10 to base-2, contains the instructions for which primary elements would be necessary to make up the target element.

As an example, take the element tungsten (74W), whose atomic number is 7410 (10010102). The atomic number, in base-2, can be used to determine the primary elements that could combine to create it.

Instruction Set
1 mod 2 2 mod 2 4 mod 2 9 mod 2 18 mod 2 37 mod 2 74 mod 2
Base2 Places 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
Base10 Places 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Primary Elements 64Gd     8O   2He  

As can be seen, the elements gadolinium, oxygen, and helium can, in theory, be constituents combined to form the element tungsten. The same process would apply to all other elements whose atomic numbers are equal to or less than 127, for 127 is the maximum value possible for a 7-bit base-2 number; 7 being the number of available stable primary elements.

It should be noted that this instruction process scales with the amount targeted in mol (6.022 140 76×1023 atoms); that a given mol of a target element would need an equal amount of each individual primary element. In the example of tungsten, assuming 100% efficiency, to make 1 mol of tungsten, one would need 1 mol of gadolinium, 1 mol of oxygen, and 1 mol of helium.

Means of Fusion

Base 2 nucleosynthesis relies upon proton capture, as opposed to neutron capture. In order to make a heavier element out of lighter ones, they must combine at the atomic level, at the very least through both elements stably consuming each others' protons. This also means that a very high vacuum must be maintained to prevent primary elements from bombarding air molecules. The fusing of light elements is always exothermic, this means that excess heat during nucleosynthesis must be accounted for. For elements with a combined number of neutrons and protons higher than 56 (for example: 56
) to be produced, it would require supplying extra energy to fuel the endothermic nature of the 56+ reaction. This is what causes the cores of stars to rapidly cool in temperature, and thus continuously lose the ability to keep their structure due to a drop in radiation pressure.

Indeed, it would likely take a project with temperatures and pressures comparable to that within the cores of stars to compress constituent elements into target ones; a project calibrated very precisely or that and split in different stages as to avoid compressing the target element in on itself and straying from the bullseye.

Reverse Process

A secondary theory, the reverse process of B2N, is put forth as well. It involves splitting larger atoms into constituent parts, leading to an increased stock of the seven primary elements. However, Hawke suggests it to be considered even less likely to work reliably in any capacity outside of a virtual environment, largely due to the inability to control the specific atomic numbers of fission products.


While there have been concerted attempts, so far to date there have not been any successful public experiments in regards to B2N. Failures often cite the inability to reliably fuse atoms, to prevent target elements from fusing with further primaries, and the very poor scalability of the process to cheap and efficient mass production levels.

It has been rumored that the Cyberian military has looked or has been looking into ways to implement this theory and potentially others like it in the artificial construction of rare earth or otherwise precious elements. The name "Project Alchemy" is often presented in conspiracy media, harking back to the ancient protoscientific studies of alchemy. While the Antarctic State government is no stranger to keeping secrets, "Project Alchemy" is often regarded as one of the less-plausible machinations.